Ecosanitation

The sanitation system applied is that of dry urine diverting toilets (UDDT) in connection with hand wash facilities and a grey-water soil filter. The dry urine diverting system separates urine and faeces, which are sanitized resulting in a compost and urine-fertilizer free of hazardous pathogens according to the WHO guidelines IV on the re-use of wastewater and excreta. The toilets do not need water for flushing. The construction materials are locally available. 

The advantages of UDDT are:

  • Do not require a constant source of water
  • No problems with odors and vectors (flies) if used and maintained correctly (i.e. kept dry)
  • Can be built and repaired with locally available materials
  • Low capital and operation costs
  • Large scale nutrient recovery possibility.
  • Suitable for all types of users (sitters, squatters, washers, wipers)

Urine and faeces are interesting raw materials. They can be and should be used in the agriculture to close the natural nutrient circle and to protect (ground-) water and soil from pollutants. 

Nutrients in the household wastewater come mostly from human urine and faeces. About 85 % of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are found in urine. Urine is a natural (mostly) sterile fertilizer and can replace artificial fertilizer. Faeces are very rich in micro-organisms but also carry diseases. Therefore, the faeces need to be composted, so that the micro-organisms are destroyed. This compost is then used as a valuable soil-quality-improver.

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